Thyroid (Matabolism and more)
For problems related to the above visit this page
For more info about the thyroid - visit this page.
Heart (circulation, blood quality)
For more info about the heart: visit this page
Lungs (respiratory function)
The respiratory system provides oxygen to the bloodstream.
The sinuses filter and humidify the air we breathe. They also regulate the temperature of incoming air.
The trachea, bronchi and bronchioles are lined with cilia-hairlike structures that beat continuously, pushing mucus and foreign particles up toward the pharynx.
The lungs filter the air we breathe and only allow microscopic particles to reach the alveoli.
In the alveoli, carbon dioxide leaves the body and oxygen enters the body through thin capillary walls.
A healthy diet, regular exercise, a minimum of stress and adequate sleep all benefit respiratory system health.
To know more about sinuses and lungs, visit this page.
Aorta (Circulation, blood quality)
The largest artery in the body. Anatomically, the aorta is traditionally divided into the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. The descending aorta is, in turn, subdivided into the thoracic aorta (that descends within the chest) and the abdominal aorta (that descends within the belly).
The aorta gives off branches that go to the head and neck, the arms, the major organs in the chest and abdomen, and the legs. It serves to supply them all with oxygenated blood. The aorta is the central conduit from the heart to the body.
The pancreas is located in the abdomen, tucked behind the stomach. It is shaped somewhat like a tadpole - fat at one end and slender at the other - and is around 25cm in length.
The pancreas has dual roles.
1. it is an organ of the digestive system and of the endocrine (hormonal) system. Once food has been mulched and partially digested by the stomach, it is pushed into the duodenum (first part of the small intestine). The pancreas adds its own digestive juices and enzymes to the food, via a small duct attached to the duodenum. This process is said to belong to the 'exocrine pancreas'.
2. The pancreas also produces the hormone insulin, which helps to control the amount of sugar in the blood. This is the role of the 'endocrine pancreas. To learn more about the pancreas visit this page
Small and Large Intestine (assimilation, elimination)
After food is chewed and swallowed, it passes through the esophagus and enters the stomach. The stomach secretes hydrochloric acid and certain enzymes to begin the breakdown and sterilization of the food. The stomach is particularly important to the digestion of proteins. Typically, the stomach will hold about a quart of food or liquid, but its muscular walls can expand to hold much more than this. The stomach is lined with a durable mucus coating that protects it from hydrochloric acid and other gastric juices.
Ulcers form when a portion of this mucus lining wears thin, and the digestive juices aggravate the stomach.
The bulk of nutrient assimilation takes place in the small intestine.
The circulatory system carries nutrients from the small intestine to the cells of the body. The small intestine is lined with tiny fingerlike projections called villi and tinier cytoplasmic projections called microvilli. These villi increase the surface area of the intestine and allow for more efficient nutrient absorption. The average adult's small intestine is 10-13 feet long, and about one inch in diameter. Because of the villi and microvilli, the total surface area of the small intestine is about 180 square meters-just smaller than a tennis court.
The first 10 inches of the small intestine is known as the duodenum; it is the most important in digestion. Here, enzyme secretions from the pancreas and bile secretions from the liver mix with the food and break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats into smaller units. The body can assimilate these nutrients in smaller forms and use them for energy. The duodenum-also secretes lactase to digest milk products, and sucrase and maltase to break down sugars.
The next sections of the small intestine are the jejunum and the ileum.
In this combined 9-12 foot segment, an additional 2-3 liters of intestinal juices are secreted each day. Because food particles have to be a certain size before they can be absorbed into the bloodstream, digestion and assimilation in this section can take several hours. The villi and microvilli absorb tiny nutrients that travel through the lymph vessels or into capillaries for transport to the liver. After the liver filters and processes these nutrients, they are sent throughout the body.
To know more about the digestive process, visit this page
The urinary system is a complex and intricate system consisting of the kidneys, urethra, bladder and ureters. A well-functioning urinary system is essential for good health. Although we tend to equate the urinary system simply with elimination, it is actually an amazingly complex filtering system that minute-by-minute determines what to excrete and what to retain
in the body. In fact, over 95 percent of the water and most of the nutrients we take in, are reabsorbed.
The kidneys, located near the lower ribs on either side of the spine, purify over a ton of blood every day. Our kidneys produce enzymes and hormones which interact with other compounds and help us maintain our blood pressure. They regulate the proper fluid balance in our bodies and help maintain the proper acid and alkali balance. Kidney failure is a lifethreatening
situation. If the kidneys cannot filter toxins from the blood and move them out of the body, these waste toxins accumulate in the blood and contaminate the entire system.
Signs of possible urinary problems include either high or low blood pressure, itchy ears, skin rashes, depression or mood swings, ear or eye irritation, insomnia or restlessness, dark, puffy circles under the eyes, allergies or hay fever, rashes, PMS, pain felt in the side or back around the hips, pain around the pubic bones, painful urination and water retention. While one or two of these symptoms are probably not cause for alarm, if you find yourself manifesting numerous symptoms, you might want to investigate what is happening.
To know more about bladder/kidneys, visit this page
The stomach is part of the digestive system.
It is a hollow, muscular organ between the end of the oesophagus
and the beginning of the small intestine. It sits in the upper left
part of the abdomen.
The stomach's role is to break down food which comes into the stomach
from the oesophagus. Muscles in the stomach mash food.
Gastric juices are released from glands in the mucosa-the innermost
layer of the stomach. These juices turn the food into a thick fluid.
The thick fluid passes into the intestine, where nutrients begin
to be absorbed from the broken-down food, through the walls of the
small intestine, into the bloodstream.
For stomach related problems, visit this page
Spleen (lymphatic system):
The spleen receives blood from an artery off of the aorta. After
passing through an intricate meshwork of tiny blood vessels, the
blood continues to the liver. The blood vessels of the spleen are
surrounded by nests of B lymphocytes - mainly of the memory type.
As the blood slowly moves through the spleen, it is monitored by
T-cells for any non-self invaders. If some suspicious cell or molecule
is detected, it is presented to the resident B-cells for a match
to an appropriate memory B-cell. Once a matching B-cell is activated,
the cell divides rapidly and begins producing antibodies directed
against the invading antigen. The spleen blood vessels are also
lined with macrophages which swallow and digest debris in the blood
such as worn out red blood cells and platelets. In a disease such
as mononucleosis, the macrophages in the spleen become overactive
and trap a higher number of white blood cells. In the process, the
spleen becomes swollen and may even rupture.
To know more about the spleen and the lymphatic system, visit this page
Ovaries (reproductive system):
The ovaries are two organs located in the pelvis.
They are the size and shape of almonds. The ovaries are found on
either side of the uterus and connected to it by the fallopian tubes.
The ovaries have two functions:
* to produce hormones that help regulate the menstrual cycle
* to produce the egg (ovum) released during each menstrual cycle
This ovum may unite with a male sperm cell to form a fetus, or it
may be discarded as part of a woman's menstrual flow. At menopause
the ovaries shrink in size and stop producing ovum.
For women health issues, visit this page
Its role in digestion is simple: to convey boluses of food from
the pharynx to the stomach.
Liver (blood purification):
The largest organ in the body. The liver carries out many important
functions, such as making bile, changing food into energy, and cleaning alcohol and poisons from the blood. Considered the most complex, powerful, and useful organ of the body, your liver requires some tender maintenance and care in order to perform its many functions. These are just a few of its arduous duties:
Maintenance of many blood chemical levels.
Cleansing of the blood (in concert with the kidneys).
The manufacturing of new proteins.
Iron storage from which new blood cells are made.
Controlling blood fats, including cholesterol.
Clotting will occur at the correct rate.
Quick energy reserves.
To know more about the liver, visit this page
Gallbladder (fat processing-digestion):
gall bladder begins our digestive process by breaking down fats
and producing the bile necessary for proper digestion.
To know more about the role of the gallbladder, visit this page
Kidneys (removal of waste):
The main function of the kidneys
is to remove waste products and excess water from the body.
Each kidney has a drainage system that takes urine from that kidney
to the bladder.
When waste products of food reach the kidneys, it is the function
of the kidneys to excrete them in the urine, and they do this
by filtering the blood, removing the waste products and
leaving the nutrients in the blood.
play an important role in controlling this blood pressure.
Calcium and phosphate are two minerals found in the blood and
in the bones. If the bones are to stay strong and healthy, there
must be a correct balance of these minerals in the body. The kidneys
help to maintain this balance.
To know more about the kidneys and the urinary system, visit this page
The prostate is made up of thousands of tiny fluid-producing glands.
The fluid that the prostate gland produces forms part of semen, the fluid that carries sperm during orgasm. This fluid,
produced in the prostate is stored with sperm in the seminal vesicles. When the male climaxes,
muscular contractions cause the prostate to secrete this fluid
into the urethra, where it is expelled from the body through the
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a substance produced by the prostate gland. Elevated PSA levels may indicate prostate cancer or a noncancerous condition such as prostatitis or an enlarged prostate.Most men have PSA levels under four (ng/mL) and this has traditionally been used as the cutoff for concern about risk of prostate cancer. Men with prostate cancer often have PSA levels higher than four, although cancer is a possibility at any PSA level.
According to published reports, men who have a prostate gland that feels normal on examination and a PSA less than four have a 15% chance of having prostate cancer. Those with a PSA between four and 10 have a 25% chance of having prostate cancer and if the PSA is higher than 10, the risk increases to 67%. In the past, most experts viewed PSA levels less than 4 ng/mL as normal. Due to the findings from more recent studies, some recommend lowering the cutoff levels that determine if a PSA value is normal or elevated. Some researchers encourage using less than 2.5 or 3 ng/mL as a cutoff for normal values, particularly in younger patients. Younger patients tend to have smaller prostates and lower PSA values, so any elevation of the PSA in younger men above 2.5 ng/mL is a cause for concern.
Just as important as the PSA number is the trend of that number (whether it is going up, how quickly, and over what period of time). It is important to understand that the PSA test is not perfect. Most men with elevated PSA levels have noncancerous prostate enlargement, which is a normal part of aging. Conversely, low levels of PSA in the bloodstream do not rule out the possibility of prostate cancer. However, most cases of early prostate cancer are found by a PSA blood test.
To know more about the prostate (and possible solution to prostate related issues), visit this page